The GDPR’s ‘Data Protection By Design and Default’

The General Data Protection Regulation 2016/679 (‘GDPR’) has introduced the concept of ‘Data Protection by Design and Default’ (‘DPbDD’) into the data protection framework.[1] ‘Privacy by Design’ is not a new concept; it was formulated by the Information and Privacy Commissioner of Ontario in the 1990’s and is based on seven foundational principles[2]. Whilst Article […]

ICO Annual Report 2018/2019: A summary

The Information Commissioner’s Office (ICO) published its 2018/2019 Annual Report on 8 July 2019. Here is a short summary: The number of enquiries the ICO received increased by 66% to just under half a million. The number of data protection complaints almost doubled compared with the previous year. Subject Access Requests made up the largest […]

Balancing human and machine perspectives: what is the ‘public interest’ in the AI era?

By Tom Orrell & Melissa Stock Privacy law has never been a straightforward affair in England. Its development has been piecemeal over the past two centuries.[1] In fact the laws that govern information today are spread across multiple frameworks, including: libel (protecting reputation), data protection (rights over the processing of personal data), breach of confidence […]

The E-Privacy Regulation: An Overview

This is an overview of the e-Privacy Regulation (‘ePR’), which will replace Directive 2002/58/EC (Regulation on Privacy and Electronic Communications), or ‘e-Privacy Directive’. The e-Privacy Directive protects the confidentiality of electronic communications and applies to publicly available electronic communications services. In the U.K., the Privacy and Electronic Communications Regulation (“PECR”) implements the e-Privacy Directive. In […]